Except in the leftmost part, the pale blue strip indicating the observed value for helium-4 can hardly be distinguished from the theoretical curve. By the time the universe was three minutes old the process had basically stopped and the relative abundances of the elements was fixed at ratios that didn't change for very long time: 75% hydrogen, 25% helium, with trace amounts of deuterium (hydrogen-2), helium-3, and lithium-7. Nuclear reactions responsible for the relative abundances of light atomic nuclei observed throughout the r nucleosynthesis.
Once temperatures are lowered, out of every 16 nucleons (2 neutrons and 14 protons), 4 of these (25% of the total particles and total mass) combine quickly into one helium-4 nucleus. Theory of bbn gives a detailed mathematical description of the production of the light "elements" deuterium, helium-3, helium-4, and lithium-7. This predicts that about 8% of all atoms should be helium-4, leading to a mass fraction of helium-4 of about 25%, which is in line with observations.
The so-called αβγ paper, in which alpher and gamow suggested that the light elements were created by hydrogen ions capturing neutrons in the hot, dense early universe. There are two predominant processes by which stellar hydrogen fusion occurs: proton-proton chain and the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (cno) cycle. The first nuclei were formed about three minutes after the big bang, through the process called big bang nucleosynthesis.
1] supernova nucleosynthesis is also thought to be responsible for the creation of rarer elements heavier than iron and nickel, in the last few seconds of a type ii supernova event. Small traces of deuterium and helium-3 remained as there was insufficient time and density for them to react and form helium-4. A larger value of g leads to a faster expansion of the universe, decreasing the duration of the nucleosynthesis era.
Writing g = g0 + dg, (mp = mp0 + dmp), and introducing this quantity in the computation steps described before, we find that the helium matter fraction varies is generally argued that the nucleosynthesis observational results coincides with the theoretical results by with a precision of 1 - 2%. Iii the semi-analytical computation of the primordial nucleosynthesis the computation of the nucleosynthesis process in the early universe involves three main steps. Specifically, the theory yields precise quantitative predictions for the mixture of these elements, that is, the primordial abundances at the end of the order to test these predictions, it is necessary to reconstruct the primordial abundances as faithfully as possible, for instance by observing astronomical objects in which very little stellar nucleosynthesis has taken place (such as certain dwarf galaxies) or by observing objects that are very far away, and thus can be seen in a very early stage of their evolution (such as distant quasars).
At this time there were about six protons for every neutron, but a small fraction of the neutrons decay before fusing in the next few hundred seconds, so at the end of nucleosynthesis there are about seven protons to every neutron, and almost all the neutrons are in helium-4 nuclei. Gradually it became clear that hydrogen and helium are much more abundant than any of the other elements. 2] of the several processes of nucleosynthesis, stellar nucleosynthesis is the dominating contributor to elemental abundances in the universe.
Hence, the bbfh hypothesis could not by tely explain the observed abundances of helium and deuterium in to the pioneering efforts of george gamow and his collaborators,There now exists a satisfactory theory as to the production of light the early universe. It implies to use many numerical codes in order to evaluate the transmutation process involving protons and neutrons to obtain the final ratio between these nucleons, which determines the final abundance of helium. Cameron presented his own independent approach (following hoyle's approach for the most part) of nucleosynthesis.
If the duration of the nucleosynthesis era becomes smaller, than more neutrons survive to be captured in deuterium, forming helium later. This will enable us to compute the variation of the helium abundance as function of gr, and consequently as function of the brans-dicke parameter w. Among the elements found naturally on earth (the so-called primordial elements), those heavier than boron were created by stellar nucleosynthesis and by supernova nucleosynthesis.
Hence, the temperature drops very quickly and the duration of the nucleosynthesis era becomes shorter. The entire research field expanded rapidly in the section of a supergiant showing nucleosynthesis and elements formed. To begin with,It was estimated that only a small amount of matter found in the consist of helium if stellar nuclear reactions were its only production.
Clayton, "principles of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis", mcgraw-hill, 1968; university of chicago press, 1983, isbn 0-226-10952-6. Hoyle later gave lemaître's model the derisive term of big bang, not realizing that lemaître's model was needed to explain the existence of deuterium and nuclides between helium and carbon, as well as the fundamentally high amount of helium present, not only in stars but also in interstellar space. This nuclear astronomy observation was predicted in 1969 as a way to confirm explosive nucleosynthesis of the elements, and that prediction played an important role in the planning for nasa's compton gamma-ray proofs of explosive nucleosynthesis are found within the stardust grains that condensed within the interiors of supernovae as they expanded and cooled.